著作名稱：  Generalization of an Optical ASA Switch 
年度：  2019 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) is a kind of passive wavelength router, and it is the most promising technology for developing large optical switches. However, AWGs have poor scalability, and using small AWGs to construct a large switch has been done in many prior works. A novel AWGbased switch called ASA (AWG, space switching, AWG) that does not use wavelength converters has been proposed. It can expand the switch size from N to N^2 by using N×N AWGs. In this paper, we generalize the ASA switch by using only N×N AWGs, N×N space switches and N wavelengths such that the switch size is expanded to N^t for any positive integer t. Since each port of an N×N AWG can transmit up to N wavelengths simultaneously, the total capacity of the generalized ASA switch is extended to be close to N^(t+1) × the bandwidth of a wavelength channel, provided that inputs which are located in the same port position of each input AWG are destined to distinct outputs. 
關鍵字：  arrayedwaveguide grating (AWG); optical networks; rearrangeable nonblocking; wavelengthdivisionmultiplexing (WDM) 
著作名稱：  A unifying approach to nonblocking Closlike networks with k multiplexing levels 
年度：  2019 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  Many multiplexing technologies have been proposed to meet the need for high network capacity. One can foresee that transmission systems with many multiplexing levels will be used in telecommunication networks in the future, and the need for switching connections to pass through multiplexed fiber links will rise accordingly. One Closlike network with k multiplexing levels was proposed in an earlier work, and the work proved only the strictly nonblocking (SNB) conditions. In this paper, we propose a unifying method to prove not only the SNB condition, but also rearrangeable, repackable and widesense nonblocking conditions for the Closlike network with k multiplexing levels. Note that the proposed new proof for the SNB condition is more compact than that given in the earlier work. 
關鍵字：  Clos networksStrictly nonblocking networksRearrangeable nonblocking networksRepackable nonblocking networksWidesense nonblocking networks 
著作名稱：  Power Minimization in MicroringBased Benes Networks 
年度：  2018 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  An NoC (network on chip) constructed with silicon photonic microrings can be implemented with CMOS technology
and integrated with processor cores on the same die. Each microring in the NoC has two switching states, one consuming significantly less power than the other. Different routing schemes can lead to different numbers of microrings in the highpower consumption state, and result in different power consumptions for the NoC. In an earlier work, a loopingbased routing algorithm was proposed which exploits the different power consumption characteristics of the two switching states of a microring so as to minimize the power consumption of a Benestype NoC; but this algorithm cannot provide an optical solution. In this paper, we will show the necessary and sufficient conditions for finding the optimal solution for a Benestype NoC. We also present a new routing algorithm. Compared with the algorithm of the previous work, the new algorithm can reduce the number of microrings in the highpowerconsumption state by as many as (n−2) ·2n−2 in a 2n×2n Benestype NoC for certain interconnection patterns. 
關鍵字：  Photonic microring, power minimization, Benes network. 
著作名稱：  Nonblocking Multirate 2Stage Networks 
年度：  2018 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  A 2stage network is the most compact multistage interconnection network (MIN) for interconnecting small switches to form a large one. For larger networks, the switches in each stage can be replaced with 2stage networks to reduce crosspoint cost. The 2stage network preserves only conditional nonblockingness, while a multirate 2stage network
preserves nonblockingness. Multirate MINs have been exploited in many prior works, but multirate 2stage networks have not previously been studied. In this letter, we prove the necessary and sufficient conditions for strictly nonblocking, rearrangeable nonblocking, and repackable nonblocking multirate 2stage networks. The results can be directly applied to the architecture design of elastic optical networks which allocate a flexible use of the spectrum to each connection, as each space switch is replaced with a bandwidthvariable wavebandconverting switch, which has fullrange conversion capability. 
關鍵字：  Multirate networks, 2stage networks, strictly nonblocking (SNB), rearrangeable nonblocking (RNB), repackable nonblocking (RPNB), elastic optical networks. 
著作名稱：  Construction of Nonblocking Wavelength/Space Switches with AWGs and WSSes 
年度：  2017 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  In this paper, we how to use two technologies, AWG (arrayedwaveguide grating) and WSS (wavelength selective switches), to design nonblocking wavelength/space optical cross connects. An AWG is a passive device and can route multiple wavelengths simultaneously. However, to apply AWGs, there are several issues to consider, including the wavelength conversion range, crosstalk, and switch size constraint. We show a decomposition technique for designing
an AWGbased nonblocking wavelength/space switch. The decomposition is carried out in a transformed space network. The new technique is simpler in concept and more flexible in setting switch sizes. We also study another class of wavelength/space switches that are based on WSSes and compare the two approaches in terms of the scalability, switch size constraint, and number of WCs (wavelength converters) required. 
關鍵字：  arrayedwaveguide grating (AWG); wavelength selective switch (WSS); nonblocking networks; Clos networks 
著作名稱：  Repackable multiLog_2 N networks 
年度：  2016 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  MultiLog_2 N networks have a wide range of applications in telecommunications. In this paper, we present a new type of nonblocking multiLog_2 N networks, called repackable nonblocking, wherein rearrangement activities are required only during the departures, but not upon arrivals. Furthermore, the frequency of rearrangement activities is so low that under many circumstances, they perform like strictly nonblocking networks but with a much lower hardware complexity. 
關鍵字：  MultiLog_2 N networks; Photonic switching; Repackable networks 
著作名稱：  Exploiting TwoWavelength Switching Capability of Silicon Photonic Microrings 
年度：  2013 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  Silicon photonic microrings have the capability of
handling two wavelengths simultaneously and this capability does
not exist in other types of photonic switching technologies, such
as directional couplers or MEMS. Exploiting this twowavelength switching capability has not been done before. In this paper, we use this capability to construct a new type of microringbased nonblocking optical interconnects. For a 4 4 network, the new architecture only needs four rings. In contrast, the conventional crossbarbased architecture requires 16 rings. For medium size switches, such as 8 ports or 16 ports, the new architecture also requires significantly fewer rings than conventional crossbar
switches of the same sizes. 
關鍵字：  Nonblocking networks, silicon photon rings. 
著作名稱：  Crosstalk Analysis for Microring Based Optical Interconnection Networks 
年度：  2012 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  Recently a new approach was proposed to tackle the wavelength nonuniformity problem of the silicon photonic ring technology. By lowering the Q value of the ring, the likelihood of finding a common operating wavelength can be significantly increased. But lowering Q will increase the crosstalk level in such a network. This crosstalk problem can be tackled with a generalized space dilation technique.
Since crosstalk is a central issue of this approach, computing the crosstalk level accurately is critical for a microringbased photonic interconnect. Prior work on crosstalk analysis for interconnects based on directional couplers assumed that the extinction ratios are the same for the two switching states. But this is usually not the case for silicon photonic microrings. In this paper, we develop an analytical model for analyzing the crosstalk level in a microringbased optical interconnection network. The analytical approach presented in the paper can be used for studying the crosstalk problem in optical networks based on other optical switching technologies.

關鍵字：  crosstalk, silicon photonic microrings. 
著作名稱：  A New Approach to the Wavelength NonUniformity Problem of Silicon Photonic Microrings 
年度：  2011 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  Light modulators and switches based on silicon photonic microrings can be fabricated with the conventional CMOS technology. For the first time, an optical interconnect integrated on a VLSI electronic die can be realistically envisioned. In spite of this exciting development, there is still one fundamental problem that must be overcome: wavelength nonuniformity, which is a result of miniaturization of the ring and the precision limit of the current fabricating process. Existing electronic or thermooptical tuning methods are simply not scalable.
An approach that combines techniques from both the device and architecture points of view is presented in this paper. It intends to show how the devicelevel wavelength nonuniformity problem can be tackled at the architecture level. An analytical model is also developed for evaluating the probability of finding a common wavelength among multiple microring resonators. The model can provide useful insights into the design of any microringbased interconnection network. 
關鍵字：  silicon photonic microrings, networks on chip, crosstalk, switching networks. 
著作名稱：  Repackable Log2(N, m, p) Networks and WideSense Nonblocking Log2(8, 0, p) Networks 
年度：  2018 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  The repackable Log2(N, 0, p) network, wherein repacking activities are required during departures but not upon arrivals, was proposed by Lin and Lea in a study on multiLog2N networks. Due to their complexity, Log2(N, m, p) networks are considerably more difficult to analyze compared with Log2(N, 0, p) networks. In this paper, we successfully extend the repackable Log2(N, 0, p) networks to Log2(N, m, p) networks. In addition, the proposed
routing algorithm is shown to be an optimal algorithm according to the total number of planes required. Furthermore, an analysis tool is proposed for studying repackable Log2(N, m, p) networks and is applied to show that each widesense nonblocking Log2(8, 0, p) network requires the same total number of planes as a strictly nonblocking network under any possible routing strategy. 
關鍵字：  Log2(N, m, p) networks; repackable networks; widesense nonblocking networks. 
著作名稱：  Rearrangeable WSW Elastic Optical Networks Generated by Graph Approaches 
年度：  2018 
類別：  期刊論文 
摘要：  In elastic optical networks, a connection uses different spectrum widths that spread over adjacent frequency slot units (FSUs) to improve utilization efficiency. A threestage wavelengthspacewavelength (WSW) optical node architecture for elastic optical networks employs wavelength switching in the first and third stages and space switching in the second stage. This paper considers twoWSWarchitectures, calledWSW1andWSW2networks. In an earlier study, a matrix decomposition approach was used to derive a condition that was sufficient for rearrangeable nonblocking (RNB), but only for a WSW1 network with a limited number of connection rates. In this paper, instead of using a matrix decomposition approach, we use a graph approach to derive the same result. Furthermore, we adopt different graph approaches to derive two sufficient conditions, which benefit limited connection rates and limited input/output fibers of an RNB WSW1 (or WSW2) network. Specifically, the former is better than the latter if the number of connection rates is less than the minimum ceiling value of half the number of 1) input/output switches and 2) FSUs in each input and output fiber, and vice versa if the number of input/output switches is less than the minimum value of 1) twice the maximum FSUs occupied by a single connection and 2) FSUs in each input and output fiber. Note that limited input/output switches lead to limited input/output fibers. The graph approaches proposed in this paper can be applied to various other elastic optical networks for further study. 
關鍵字：  Edgecoloring; Elastic optical networks; Optical switching fabrics; Rearrangeable nonblocking (RNB). 